Crops: IODINE AS A PLANT PROTECTANT
Iodine has been an established biocide in the medical and food industry for many decades. In fact it is considered the number one disinfectant in use because it has such a high REDOX value. This means iodine is not challenged with issues of microbial resistance because of its effective capability in oxidation even under high organic loading which is typical in the agricultural, food processing and medical industries.
HISTORICAL USES OF IODINE IN AGRICULTURE
Iodine was discovered in 1811, isolated from the soda ash of seaweed, by the French scientist Courtors and used as a medical tincture in the Civil War. By 1874, it was found to be one of the most efficacious antiseptics, due in part to its low reactivity to proteins, allowing the I2 molecule to rapidly and thoroughly penetrate the cell wall of microorganisms.
Research in the early part of the 20th century demonstrated that iodine was quite effective in controlling seed borne diseases, eelworms in bulbs/tubers, fungal diseases such as Colletotrichum tabificum on tomatoes, Pseudoperonaspora humuli (Hop Downy Mildew) and Phytophthora infestans (late blight) on potatoes. Iodine was also utilized to help preserve post-harvested fruit, especially grapes, from spoilage organisms. Research conducted at this time also demonstrated that iodine promotes the growth of nitrifying bacteria and intensifies the assimilation of nitrogen.
During the 1950’s and 1960’s, various forms of iodine were utilized to effectively protect crops, such as citrus from nematodes, psorosi or “scaly bark,” Phytophthora parasitica or “foot rot”; coffee trees infected with Hemileia vastatrix; as well as those diseases considered to be “incurable”, such as Dutch Elm disease.
IODINE AND PHYTO-THERAPY
Iodine has also been utilized to contain the following plant diseases: Cut flowers (powdery mildew and rust, Puccinia sp.); Cucumbers (Anthracnose or Colletotrichum orbiculare and angular spot or Pseudomonas syringae); Tomatoes (late blight or Phytophtora infestans II, early blight or Alternaria solani); Wine grapes (Black Rot, Botrytis, Downy Mildew); Blueberries (Anthracnose); Ginger root (nematodes); Potato seeds (Rhizoetonia solani and Erwinna rot). Research continues on a variety of crops on difference continents.
A NEW GENERATION IODINE
Historically, Iodine applications were messy and/or posed risks of phytotoxicity on crops due to the insolubility of the crude materials as well as the hazards associated with the solvents used to make Iodine soluble. A cold-processed “iodophor” iodine has
proprietary surfactants included that keep the concentrate stable in storage. When diluted, the iodine-surfactant bonds are easily ruptured, releasing the active I2 molecule to do its job of oxidizing microbes. These surfactants are not phyto-toxic. After several hours of exposure to sunlight and air, the iodine that is not absorbed by the plant’s tissues readily sublimes leaving virtually no residues on the crop. This makes an effective, safe alternative to post harvest rinse of fruits and vegetables.
Tests conducted at independent laboratories indicate that when applied to field crops, there is no residue on harvested produce. Vegetables and fruits treated with iodine as a post harvest rinse at 12 ppm iodine indicated a negligible level of iodine on carrots and potatoes (0.10-0.50 ppm, 15 minutes to 12 hours post rinse).
CAUTION: ONLY USE IODINE COMPOUNDS THAT POSE NO THREAT TO PHYTO-TOXICITY DUE TO FORMULAS CONTAINING ALCOHOLS, SOLVENTS, HARMFUL SURFACTANTS, ETC.
NOTE: Check with your federal and state regulatory agencies, as well as your organic certifier, to determine the allowable uses of iodine in agricultural/horticultural production.
TRADITIONAL APPLICATIONS FOR USE IN AGRICULTURE
FIELD VEGETABLES & FRUITS: Apply 150-300 ppm solution of Iodine using a minimum of 40 gallons/acre of water. Spray every 7-10 days, preferably in the evening, or early in the morning at temperatures below 75˚F (25˚C). Apply following a rainfall within this schedule whenever weather permits.
ORCHARDS & VINEYARDS: Apply 150-300 ppm solution of Iodine using 100 gallons of water per acre with a fine mister/blower. Apply as directed as in field vegetables and fruits.
SEED TREATMENT: To destroy eelworms in tubers, bulbs, etc., soak bulbs in an Iodine solution at a minimum of 500 ppm for at least (1) hour. The same solution can be utilized for seed borne diseases. Iodine appears to enhance both the (%) and the rate of germination.
SOIL NEMATODES: Soil must be moist and have good drainage prior to treatment! If necessary, in fruit orchards, soil auguring to a depth of 2 feet may be advised on afflicted trees. When using low water volume (e.g. 5 gallons per citrus tree), make up a solution containing 500-1,000 ppm and apply 5 gallons to each tree, the soil of which has been irrigated prior to treatment. After applying Iodine solution, always water thoroughly, to allow the percolation of the Iodine solution into the roots. If using a large volume to deliver Iodine (e.g. 20 gallons per tree), the rate of Iodine may be reduced to 250 ppm.
HARD FRUITS AND TUBERS: Immerse tubers and hard fruits in a solution containing 12 ppm Iodine. Agitate for 1-2 minutes, depending upon soil residues and remove to air dry.
SOFT FRUITS: Spray thoroughly with a fine mist of 12 ppm of Iodine. Allow to air dry before packing.
NOTE: Iodine will discolor any exposed starch on fruits/vegetables to a violet color. Iodine is also an excellent NO RINSE disinfectant for use on hard surfaces of machinery, tools and processing equipment. Recommended dilution rate is 25 ppm.
Method of application: One liter of blue grey color liquid medicine must be mixed with 100 liters of water and spread in equal proportions everywhere in Ponds and Lakes. The mixture has to be made in plastic buckets. Using metal pot for mixture is prohibited.
Unique Feature: Material Safety Data Sheet
1.Product and Company Identification
Product Name: Stabilized Iodine Solution
CAS # Mixture
Product Use: Pond Water Disinfectant That Controls Fish Shrimp Diseases
Manufacturer: AMIT BIOTECH PRIVATE LIMITED
21, BALLYGUNGE CIRCULAR ROAD
UNIT-21, 3RD FLOOR, KOLKATA -19
WEST BENGAL, INDIA
Trade Name: Aquaneem 10 X (HS CODE : 38089400 )
- Hazards Identification
Emergency Overview: CAUTION CAUSES EYE IRRITATION. May cause chronic toxic effects.
Routes of Exposure: Eye, Skin contact, Skin absorption, Inhalation, Ingestion.
Symptoms of Overexposure: Maybe dizziness, headache, tiredness, nausea, and vomiting.
- Composition / Information on Ingredients
Ingredient(s) : 2-Pyrrolidinone, 1-ethenyl-, homopolymer, compound with iodine
CAS # 25655-41-8
Percent 7 – 14
- First Aid Measures
First aid procedures :
Eye contact -Flush with cool water. Remove contact lenses, if applicable, and continue flushing. Obtain medical attention if irritation persists.
Skin contact- In case of skin irritation, avoid contact and use a protective cover for application to a water body.
Inhalation: Not a normal route of exposure. If symptoms develop, move victim to fresh air. If symptoms persist, obtain medical attention.
Ingestion: Not a normal route of exposure. Do not induce vomiting. Never give anything by mouth if the victim is unconscious, or is convulsing. Obtain medical attention
Notes to physician: Symptoms may be delayed. General advice If you feel unwell, seek medical advice (show the label where possible). Ensure that medical personnel is aware of the material(s) involved, and take precautions to protect themselves. Show this safety data sheet to the doctor in attendance. Avoid contact with eyes and skin. Keep out of reach of children. Avoid contact with eyes.
- Fire Fighting Measures
Flammable properties Not flammable by OSHA criteria.
Extinguishing media -With suitable extinguishing media treat for surrounding material. Unsuitable extinguishing media- Not available
Protection of firefighters
Specific hazards arising from the chemical -Not available
Protective equipment for firefighters: Firefighters should wear full protective clothing including self-contained breathing apparatus.
Hazardous combustion products -May include and are not limited to: Oxides of carbon. Oxides of nitrogen. Iodine.
Sensitivity to mechanical impact: Not available
Sensitivity to static discharge: Not available
- Accidental Release
Measures Personal precautions- Keep unnecessary personnel away. Do not touch or walk through spilled material. Do not touch damaged containers or spilled material unless wearing appropriate protective clothing. Keep people away from and upwind of spill/leak.
Methods for containment- Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements, or confined areas. Methods for cleaning up Pick up and discard.
- Handling and Storage Handling -Use good industrial hygiene practices in handling this material.
Storage -Keep out of reach of children. Store in a closed container away from incompatible materials.
- Exposure Controls / Personal Protection
Ingredient(s): 2-Pyrrolidinone, 1-ethenyl-, homopolymer, compound with iodine Exposure Limits: Not established
Engineering controls: General ventilation normally adequate. Use in a well-ventilated area
Personal protective equipment- Eye/face protection Avoid eye contact with vapors, mists, or spray.
Hand protection- Not applicable.
Skin and body protection -Avoid prolonged or repetitive exposition.
Respiratory protection- Avoid breathing of spray or vapors, mists.
General hygiene considerations -Handle in accordance with good industrial hygiene and safety practice. When using do not eat or drink. Wash hands before breaks and immediately after handling the product.
- Physical & Chemical Properties
Appearance Liquid in a bottle or in a pouch
Color: Yellow to Dark reddish-brown
Odor: iodine Odor
threshold: Not available
Physical state: Liquid pH Not available
Melting point Not available
Freezing point Not available
Boiling point 97.22 °C (207 °F)
Flashpoint Not available
Evaporation rate: Not available
Flammability limits in air, lower, % by volume: Not available
Flammability limits in air, upper, % by volume:Not available
Vapor pressure: Not available
Vapor density:Not available
Specific gravity:Not available
Octanol/water coefficient:Not available
Auto-ignition temperature: Not available
VOC (Weight %) : Not available
Percent volatile:Not available
- Chemical Stability & Reactivity Information
Chemical stability -Stable under recommended storage conditions.
Conditions to avoid: Do not mix with other chemicals. Incompatible materials Caustics. Oxidizers. Reducing agents.
Hazardous decomposition products May include and are not limited to: Oxides of carbon. Oxides of nitrogen. Iodine.
Possibility of hazardous reactions Hazardous polymerization does not occur.
- Toxicological Information Component analysis –
Ingredient(s) 2-Pyrrolidinone, 1-ethenyl-, homopolymer, compound with iodine –
Component analysis –
Ingredient(s) 2-Pyrrolidinone, 1-ethenyl-, homopolymer, compound with iodine
LD50 -8100 mg/kg mouse; 8000.1 mg/kg rat
Effects of Acute Exposure :
Eye Causes irritation. Skin: In case of skin irritation, use a protective cover.
Topical application of povidone-iodine elevates serum concentrations of iodine.
Inhalation Not a normal route of exposure. May cause respiratory tract irritation. Ingestion Not a normal route of exposure. May cause stomach distress, nausea, or vomiting.
Sensitization Non-hazardous by OSHA criteria.
Chronic effects Chronic ingestion of iodides may produce 'iodism' which is characterized by skin rash, nasal discharge, sneezing, fever, headaches, weakness, anemia, and loss of weight.
Carcinogenicity Non-hazardous by OSHA criteria.
Mutagenicity Non-hazardous by OSHA criteria.
Reproductive effects Non-hazardous by OSHA criteria.
Teratogenicity Non-hazardous by OSHA criteria.
- Ecological Information
Environmental effects: Not available
Aquatic toxicity:Not available
Persistence / degradability :Not available
Bioaccumulation / accumulation :Not available
Partition coefficient:Not available
Mobility in environmental media:Not available
Chemical fate information: Not available
Other adverse effects:Not available
- Disposal Considerations
Waste codes:Not available
Disposal instructions: Discard after a single use.
Review federal, state/provincial, and local government requirements prior to disposal. Discard with solid waste. Dispose of in accordance with all applicable regulations.
Waste from residues / unused products: Not available
Contaminated packaging: Not available.
- Transport Information
Similar Composition Products :
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT): Not regulated as dangerous goods. Transportation of Dangerous Goods (TDG - Canada) Not regulated as dangerous goods.
- Regulatory Information
This product is a "Hazardous Chemical" as defined by the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard, 29 CFR 1910.1200 due to the presence of listed sensitizers. All components are on the U.S. EPA TSCA Inventory List.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 29 CFR 1910.1200
Immediate Hazard - Yes
Delayed Hazard – Yes
Fire Hazard - No
Pressure Hazard - No
Reactivity Hazard - No
16.ABPL INDIA believes the information and
recommendations contained herein are accurate and reliable as of the date issued.
Buyers and handlers of this product shall assume all risk and responsibility for
potential loss or damage if this product is used, stored, handled or applied in a manner
inconsistent with its registered labeling. To the extent permitted by law, the manufacturer
shall not be liable for more than the purchase price or the quantity involved including
incidental, consequential, or special damages.
Recommended use: For Aquaculture use only.
- Long shelf life
- Accurate composition
- High level of purity
- Iodine is best medicine for E.U.S (epiz0otic ulcerative Syndrome) as per CIFA/CAR (govt. of India)
- An eco friendly scientific formulation for fish and prawn culture
Product Additional Information:
- Item Code: Aquaneem-10X
- Pay Mode Terms: T/T (Bank Transfer)
- Port of Dispatch: kolkata
- Production Capacity: 5000 lit
- Delivery Time: 10 days
- Packaging Details: 100 ml x40= 10 lt